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1991-1992 New York/New Jersey Knights

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World League of American Football (1991-1992)

Born: 1990 – WLAF founding franchise
Folded: September 1992

Stadium: Giants Stadium (76,000)

Team Colors: Black, Silver & Gold

Owner: Robert F.X. Sillerman

World Bowl Championships: None


The New York/New Jersey Knights were a short-lived franchise in the NFL’s early 1990’s developmental league, the World League of American Football.  Largely forgotten today, the Knights at least deserve some modest credit for their earnest-yet-ungainly attempt to resolve the cross-border identity crisis of Giants Stadium and the Meadowlands.

Run & Shoot innovator Mouse Davis was the Knights’ head coach for both seasons of play. But Davis’ offense – helmed variously by Jeff Graham, Doug Pederson and Reggie Slack – never put up the kind of pinball machine numbers that his Houston Gamblers and Denver Gold offenses did in the United States Football League.

The Knights went 5-5 in their first season and advanced to the 1991 WLAF playoffs. They lost to the eventual champion London Monarchs in the opening round.  The following season the Knights improved to 6-4, but missed the postseason.

In September 1992 the NFL pulled the plug to the World League after only two seasons of play.  Although the European teams proved popular, the weak television ratings and limited box office appeal of the American clubs hurt the league.  The Knights were the best draw among the American teams, averaging over 30,000 fans per game in 1991.


New York-New Jersey Knights Memorabilia




Knights Video

The Knights host the San Antonio Riders at Giants Stadium on April 4, 1992



WLAF/NFL Europe Media Guides

WLAF/NFL Europe Programs


1991-2003 Barcelona Dragons


World League of American Football (1991-1992)
World League (1995-1997)
NFL Europe (1998-2003)

Born: 1990 – WLAF founding franchise
Folded: Postseason 2003


Team Colors: Dark Green, Scarlet & Yellow


NFL Europe World Bowl Champions: 1997


The Barcelona Dragons were a founding franchise in the NFL-backed World League of American Football (1991-1992), which sought to serve as both a developmental league for the NFL and a marketing mechanism to extend the NFL brand into European markets.  The original concept saw a mix of European (Barcelona, Frankfurt & London) franchises with North American franchises.

The NFL pulled the plug on the WLAF after two seasons in September 1992.  But the league was re-organized as the Europe-only “World League” in 1995 and the Barcelona Dragons returned to action after a two-year hiatus.  In 1998 the World League was re-branded as NFL Europe.  The Dragons played nine seasons in the re-booted league before going out of business after the 2003 season.

All told, the Dragons played eleven seasons and made four trips to the World Bowl championship game, winning their lone title at World Bowl ’97.

Former Boston College head coach Jack Bicknell was the Dragons’ only head coach for their 11-year history and the team employed quite a few former Boston College Eagles over the years, including 1985 Outland Trophy winner Mike Ruth, who played for the 1991 and 1992 Dragons after his NFL career failed to pan out.

Other notable players included ex-Penn State defensive lineman Bruce Clark, the #4 overall pick in the 1980 NFL Draft, who finished his career with Barcelona in 1991.  Former Notre Dame quarterback Tony Rice, who led the Fighting Irish to the national championship in 1988, played for the Dragons in 1991 and 1992 but could not unseat ex-Rutgers signal caller Scott Erney for the starting job.  Former Temple running back Paul Palmer, an NFL 1st round draft bust in 1987, played for the Dragons in 1991 and 1992.

The Dragons – and the World League’s – most notorious player was former UConn linebacker Eric Naposki.  Naposki, who kicked around the NFL briefly in the late 1980’s as an undrafted free agent, was Barcelona’s leading tackler in 1991.  He played the 1991 & 1992 seasons during the WLAF era and later returned to play for the Dragons again in 1996 and 1997.  In 2012, Naposki was sentenced to life in prison without parole for the 15-year old murder-for-hire of Bill McLaughlin in Newport Beach, California in December 1994.  The murder went unsolved for 15 years before Naposki and a female accomplice were arrested.  Chillingly, Naposki continued to play for the Dragons for two seasons after committing the killing.


==Barcelona Dragons Programs on Fun While It Lasted==

 Year Date Opponent Score Program Other


1991 3/24/1991 vs. New York/New Jersey Knights W 19-7 Video
1991 6/2/1991 @ Birmingham Fire W 10-3 Program
1991 6/9/1991 @ London Monarchs L 21-0 Video


1992 5/23/1992 @ Orlando Thunder L 13-10 Video


1996 4/21/1996 @ Scottish Claymores L 23-13 Program




June 9, 1991 – The Dragons face the London Monarchs in World Bowl I before 61,000 fans at Wembley Stadium.



WLAF/NFL Europe Media Guides

WLAF/NFL Europe Programs


1991-1992 Sacramento Surge

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World League of American Football (1991-1992)

Born: June 8, 1990 – WLAF founding franchise.
September 17, 1992


Team Colors:

Owner: Fred Anderson

World Bowl Champions: 1992


The Sacramento Surge were a minor league football team in the NFL-sponsored World League of American Football for two spring seasons in 1991 and 1992.  During their debut season, the Surge played at Hughes Stadium.  In 1992 the team moved across town to Sacramento State’s Hornet Stadium.

The first Surge team in 1991 fared poorly under former Buffalo Bills Head Coach Kay Stephenson.  The team finished 3-7 and out of the playoff hunt.  The roster was composed primarily of late 1980’s NFL draft picks-turned-training camp casualties, plus refugees from the Canadian Football League.  In a nod to the league’s international pretensions, there were also a couple of “Operation Discovery” players from overseas attempting to adapt their athletic talents to the sport of American football.  The Surge had a Swedish linebacker named Matti Lindholm and a German defensive lineman named Oliver Erhorn.

1991 Surge starting quarterback Mike Elkins was exactly the kind of the player the World League was designed for.  A 2nd round draft pick of the Kansas City Chiefs out of Wake Forest in 1989, Elkins was expected to be the Chiefs quarterback of the 1990’s.  But Elkins had accuracy troubles and spent his first two years in the NFL holding a clipboard on the sidelines.  More than anything else, Elkins needed snaps and the WLAF would provide a competitive developmental environment for that kind of player.  Elkins started 9 games for the Surge in 1991 on assignment from Kansas City and then reported back to Chiefs training camp, where he was released in the team’s final cutdown for the 1991 NFL season.

The Surge returned in 1992 with all-new players at the key skills positions.  Elkins was gone, replaced by NFL journeyman David Archer, who was one of the older players in the league at age 30.  Former Atlanta Falcons practice squadder Mike Pringle took over lead running back duties.  Former Iowa State receiver Eddie Brown returned to the States from the Canadian Football League.

Archer would lead the WLAF with 2,964 yards passing and 23 touchdowns in only 10 games.  Brown was the league’s best in receiving yardage (1,011) and touchdown receptions (12).  Pringle was a double-threat running the ball and catching passes out of the backfield.  On defense, the Surge unearthed a Seattle Seahawks practice squad player named Michael Sinclair.  Sinclair tore up the World League with 10 sacks in 1992 and would go on to become one of the NFL’s most feared pass rushers of the 1990’s, earning three Pro Bowl nods during a decade with the Seahawks.

Sacramento Surge World BowlAnother notable player on the 1992 edition of the Surge was defensive tackle Bill Goldberg, an 11th round draft choice of the Los Angeles Rams out of the University of Georgia in 1990.  Goldberg would parlay his World League experience into a brief NFL career with the Atlanta Falcons in the early Nineties, but his real fame came at the end of the decade as the World Championship Wrestling and WWE star Goldberg.

The 1992 Surge tied with the Orlando Thunder for the best record in the World League at 8-2.  The two teams met in the World Bowl II championship game at Montreal’s Olympic Stadium on June 6, 1992.  Down 17-6 entering the 4th quarter, David Archer threw touchdown passes to tight end Paul Green and to Eddie Brown to lead a furious 15-point rally, as the Surge won the championship 21-17.  Archer was named game MVP.   This turned out to be the final game for the league.

The NFL pulled the plug on the WLAF in September 1992 after two years of operation.  Surge owner Fred Anderson wanted to soldier on and acquired a Canadian Football League expansion franchise for Sacramento to begin play in July of 1993.  Anderson’s Sacramento Gold Miners were the first CFL team to be based in the United States.   The Gold Miners were in some ways a continuation of the Surge in a new league, retaining the old team’s color scheme, Head Coach Kay Stephenson, and quite a few players, including starting quarterback David Archer.

The Gold Miners played two seasons in Sacramento (1993-1994) before moving to San Antonio, Texas.


Sacramento Surge Memorabilia


In Memoriam

Defensive back Junior Robinson died in a car accident on September 30, 1995.  He was 27 years old.

Former Surge defensive lineman Nate Hill passed away on September 18, 2012 at age 41.


Sacramento Surge Video

April 27, 1991.  The Surge host Spain’s Barcelona Dragons at Hughes Stadium before a crowd of 19,045 and a national cable audience on USA Network.



World League of American Football Media Guides

World League of American Football Programs

1991 Sacramento Surge Statistics on

1992 Sacramento Surge Statistics on


1991-1992 Birmingham Fire

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Birmingham Fire WLAFWorld League of American Football (1991-1992)

Born: April 18, 1990 – WLAF founding franchise
Folded: September 17, 1992

Stadium: Legion Field (80,596)

Team Colors: Navy, Gold & Crimson

Owner: Gavin Maloof et al.

World Bowl Championships: None


Brief two-season entry in the World League of American Football (WLAF), the NFL’s abortive early 90’s effort to create a springtime developmental league.

In the past, Birmingham had been unusually receptive to not-quite-the-NFL brands of pro football.   The WFL’s Americans and Vulcans and the USFL’s Stallions all attracted relatively strong crowds to Legion Field in the 1970’s and 1980’s.   The Fire’s home debut on March 23, 1991 against the Montreal Machine drew a big crowd of 52,942 curiosity seekers.  Jerry Lee Lewis played “Great Balls of Fire” at halftime and the game was broadcast to a national cable audience on the USA Network.  Attendance dropped off quickly though.  Only 8,114 turned out for the Fire’s fourth home game the following month.

Paul McGowan WLAFUnder Head Coach Chan Gailey, the Fire made it to the playoffs in both seasons of existence, losing in the opening game both times.  The WLAF offered the former Denver Broncos offensive coordinator his first pro head coaching opportunity.  He later served as Head Coach in the NFL with the Dallas Cowboys (1998-1999) and the Buffalo Bills (2010-2012).

The majority owner of the Fire was 34-year old Gavin Maloof, scion of the New Mexico beer distributing dynasty and son of former NBA Houston Rockets owner George Maloof, Sr.  Maloof originally wanted the WLAF’s San Antonio franchise, but lost out to a rival bidder and ended up with Birmingham.   At the end of the Fire’s second season, he returned his controlling stake in the franchise to the league in August 1992.  This left the future of the Fire up in the air, but it all became a moot point one month later when the NFL decided to mothball the entire WLAF concept.

The WLAF shut down on September 17, 1992.  A revived version of the spring developmental league – NFL Europe (1995-2007) – launched three years later without any North American franchises.

Pro football returned twice more to Birmingham’s Legion Field, with the formation of the Canadian Football League’s Birmingham Barracudas (1995) and the XFL’s Birmingham Thunderbolts (2001).   Both teams played to small crowds and lasted only a single season.


==Birmingham Fire Games on Fun While It Lasted==

Date Opponent Score Program Other
1991 3/23/1991 vs. Montreal Machine L 20-5  Program
1991 3/30/1991 vs. Sacramento Surge W 17-10 Video
1991 4/8/1991 @ Montreal Machine L 23-10 Video
1991 4/21/1991 @ Orlando Thunder W 31-6 Video
1991 4/29/1991 vs. San Antonio Riders W 16-12 Video
1991 5/4/1991 @ Barcelona Dragons L 11-6 Video
1991 5/20/1991 vs. New York-New Jersey Knights W 24-14 Program Video
1991 5/25/1991 @ Raleigh-Durham Skyhawks W 28-7 Video
1991 6/1/1991 vs. Barcelona Dragons L 10-3 Program Video
1992 3/21/1992 @ Sacramento Surge L 20-6 Video
1992 4/11/1992 @ London Monarchs T 17-17 (OT) Program Video



The Fire host the Barcelona Dragons in a semi-final playoff game on June 1, 1991.  Use of the WLAF’s famous Helmet Cam at 0:32.




Can the Fire Catch On in Birmingham?”, Peter Applebome, The New York Times, April 21, 1991

World League of American Football Media Guides

World League of American Football Programs

1991 Birmingham Fire Statistics on

1992 Birmingham Fire Statistics on


Written by AC

May 23rd, 2013 at 1:49 pm

1991-1992 Orlando Thunder

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World League of American Football (1991-1992)

Born: 1990 – WLAF founding franchise.
Died: September 1992 – The WLAF ceases operations.

Stadium: The Florida Citrus Bowl (70,000)

Team Colors: Lime Green, Royal Blue & Light Blue

Owner: Raj Bhathal

World Bowl Championships: None


Remember the World League of American Football (1991-1992), the NFL-backed spring developmental league that stretched from Sacramento to Barcelona?  The WLAF was pretty popular in Europe but never really caught on stateside, despite national TV contracts with ABC and The USA Network.  If you recall the World League at all, chances are it’s for one of two things: the USA Network’s “Helmet Cam”, which put viewers into the heads of quarterbacks about to be bulldozed by 300-lb. linemen, or for the blinding florescent green uniforms of the Orlando Thunder franchise.

Thunder owner Raj Bhathal was a swimwear manufacturer in Newport Beach, California.  The Thunder’s lime green hue might have blended right into Bhathal’s spring line of bikinis, but it was a novel attention grabber on a pro football field.

Whatever you thought of the Thunder’s look – ESPN Page 2 columnist Paul Lukas rated them the 2nd worst in the history of pro football in 2006 – the team did play an exciting, pass happy brand of football under Head Coach Don Matthews during their first season in the spring of 1991.  Former University of Florida quarterback Kerwin Bell tied for the league lead in passing touchdowns with 17.  But the Thunder were streaky and finished out of the playoffs at 5-5.

As TV ratings and game attendance lagged in the U.S., one criticism of the league was that it lacked compelling NFL prospects, despite its mission as a developmental league.  The WLAF tended to be a last chance destination for disappointing 2nd or 3rd round quarterbacks-turned-clipboard holders like Anthony Dilweg and Mike Elkins.  There wasn’t a sense that you were watching the stars of tomorrow, as you might have in triple-A baseball, for instance.

The Thunder certainly had their fair share of draft busts and disappointments, including running backs Roger Vick (New York Jets 1st rounder, 1987) and Darryl Clack (Dallas Cowboys 2nd round, 1986).  But in a category unto himself was notorious offensive lineman Kevin Allen (Philadelphia Eagles 1st round, 1985), who joined the Thunder in 1992 on assignment from the Kansas City Chiefs.  Orlando’s willingness to accept Kevin Allen, who served 33 months of a 15-year sentence for a brutal 1986 rape perpetrated with the assistance of a former Philadelphia Eagles intern, stands as a stain on all those involved with the senior management of the team.  Allen was out of football six years when he became a starter for the Thunder in 1992.  Fortunately, he never played again.

A notable exception to all this was Miami Dolphins quarterback Scott Mitchell, who was sent to Orlando for seasoning in the 1992 season.  As a true prospect on assignment from an NFL club, Mitchell quickly relegated Kerwin Bell to the bench.  Mitchell was 2nd in the WLAF in passing yards in 1992 and helped lead the team to an 8-2 record and a berth in World Bowl ’92 against the Sacramento Surge at Montreal’s Olympic Stadium.

The Surge defeated the Thunder 21-17 in the league championship game on June 6, 1992.  This would prove to the last game in the league’s brief two-year history.

Like most of the American clubs, attendance was somewhat disappointing in Orlando.  The Thunder averaged 19,018 fans for five dates at the Florida Citrus Bowl and dropped to 16,522 in 1992, despite the team’s dramatic improvement in the standings.  The local Orlando Sentinel newspaper pilloried absentee owner Raj Bhathal for running a cut-rate, blundering operation on numerous occasions, typified by the team’s decision to make its cheerleaders pay their own way to the World Bowl ’92 title game in Montreal.

In September 1992, the NFL pulled the plug on the World League after two seasons.  The spring developmental concept was re-worked and then re-launched as NFL Europe in 1995, with all three of the WLAF’s European franchises returning, along with several new overseas markets.


Orlando Thunder Memorabilia


Thunder Video

The Orlando Thunder host the Birmingham Fire at the Florida Citrus Bowl. April 21, 1991.

The Thunder, with future Detroit Lions QB Scott Mitchell under center, against the New York-New Jersey Knights. 1992 season.




World League of American Football Media Guides

World League of American Football Programs



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